Footnotes to The Role of Complexity in an Integrated Science of Sociology

 Sociological theory, like any other scientific theory, rests on a massive foundation Of unspoken assumptions, These assumptions need not be taken as part of the theory in a narrow sense, but they do influence the way that a theory is developed. We might identify these underlying assumptions as a metatheory: however, by differentiating them this way we do not mean to underestimate the crucial influence they have on the development of theory in the narrow sense.Paul Johnson
  Joseph Agassi, Science and Society, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Boston, D. Reidel, 1981 Page 19 The historical case of Michael Faraday is tragicomic, Even recognizing Faradays ideas as interesting was a heresy, since these ideas contradicted the well-established cannons of Newtonian science. A man like Faraday could do nothing, then, except lecture and write almost exclusively about his own ideas.
 John Stuart Mill, Auguste comte and Positivism, Ann Arbor; University of Michigan Press, 1965, page 12 Nor is it unknown to any who has followed the history of the physical sciences, that the positive explanation of facts has substituted itself, step by step, for the theological and metaphysical, as the process of inquiry brought to light an increasing number of the invariable laws of phenomena. In these respects M. comte has not originated anything, but has taken his place on the side already in the main victorious. The generalization which belongs to himself, and in which he had not, to the best of our knowledge, been at all anticipated, is, that every distinct class of human conceptions passes through all these stages, beginning with the theological, and proceeding through the metaphysical to the positive: the metaphysical being a mere state of transition, but an indispensable one, from the theological mode of thought to the positive, which is destined finally to prevail, by the universal recognition that all phenomena without exception are governed by invariable laws, with which no volitions, either natural or supernatural, interfere.
 Ritzer, George, Toward an Integrated Sociological Paradigm, Boston; Alyn and Bacon,1981 page 80 "There is little doubt that Weber is aware that people create the structures that ultimately constrain them."
  Ritzer, George, Toward an Integrated Sociological Paradigm, Boston; Alyn and Bacon,1981 page 132 Not only does Simmel operate with this three-tiered image of social reality, but he also adapts the principle of emergence, the idea that the higher levels emerge out of the lower levels
  Mario Bunge, "The Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Methodology of Levels" Hierarchical Structures ed. by Lancelot Law White, Albert G. Wilson, and Donna Wilson, New York; American Elsevier, 1969 A level is newer than another level of the same level structure if and only if the former has emerged from the latter.